Brassica (Cabbages/Kales)

Brassica oleracea is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale,collard greens among many.

[vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]Cabbage and kale are vegetables of Brassica family (also called cruciferae family)

Cabbage Brassica oleraceae var capitata is distinguished from them by the short, petioled leaves and later development of a compact head, by compressed stem and leaves, the latter developing from within but swelling outward.

Kale Brassica oleraceae var acephala is a form of cabbage with green leaves in which the central leaves do not form a head.[dt_fancy_title title=”Soil Type” title_align=”left” title_color=”accent” el_width=”50″ separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]

  • PH levels between 6.0-6.5
  • Soils rich in organic matter, sandy loam or loam and well drained
  • Soil analysis recommended for accurate fertilization

[dt_fancy_title title=”GROWING REQUIREMENTS” title_size=”h5″ title_color=”accent” separator_style=”thick” separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]Cabbage is a cool season crop which requires an optimum growth temperatures range of 15- 20° C. Head formation reduced at temperatures higher than 25 degrees Celsius. It requires adequate well distributed rainfall. Moisture levels are especially critical during the early stage of the crop growth. If the levels are low, irrigation should be used to supplement and relive the moisture stress.

Kales prefer well-drained, fertile soil high in organic matter, pH 6.0 to 7.5. Can tolerate slightly alkaline soil. Prefers plentiful and consistent moisture. Can tolerate drought, but quality and flavor of leaves suffer.[vc_single_image image=”1096″ img_size=”full” alignment=”center”][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/2″][dt_fancy_title title=”Choosing a Variety” title_align=”left” title_color=”accent” el_width=”50″ separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]While making a choice on the variety to produce, a farmer need to consider several key factors among them the maturity duration, yield potential, tolerance and resistance to pests and diseases, good field holding capacity, uniform maturity to ensure a single harvest and preference in the market among other qualities.[dt_fancy_title title=”Spacing” title_align=”left” title_color=”accent” el_width=”50″ separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]Plant spacing is important and depends with the variety and the choice of the farmer pegged on the market demands.

Varies with varieties: 60cm x 60cm for large-headed varieties, 60cm x 45cm for medium sized and 30cm x 30cm for small heads[/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/2″][dt_fancy_title title=”Nursery Management” title_align=”left” title_color=”accent” el_width=”50″ separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]Raised beds recommended for root development and proper drainage
Bed width of 1 meter and a convenient length not exceeding 100 meters and a height of 15 centimeters

With Greenlife we recommend PLO combination

  • Pyramid 100g/20L to control soil borne diseases such Damping off
  • Loyalty 10g/20L to control soil borne pests
  • Optimizer 20ml/20L to break seed dormancy and ensure uniform growth

[dt_fancy_title title=”Transplanting” title_align=”left” title_color=”accent” el_width=”50″ separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]

  • Seedlings are ready for transplanting after 4-6 weeks in the nursery, depending on temperatures
  • Wet the seedlings an hour before transplanting.
  • Plant to the same depth as in the nursery 15cm
  • Use Optimizer 10ml/20L to relieve transplanting shock

[/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][dt_fancy_title title=”PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT” title_size=”h5″ title_color=”accent” separator_style=”thick” separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]Cabbage is a host to several pests that include diamondback month (DBM), aphids and cabbage saw fly. Diseases that attack cabbage include black rot, fungal spots and bacterial soft rot.[dt_fancy_title title=”PEST MANAGEMENT” title_align=”left” title_size=”h6″ title_color=”accent” separator_style=”thick” separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/2″][dt_fancy_title title=”Diamondback Moth” title_align=”left” title_size=”small” title_color=”accent” el_width=”50″ separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_single_image image=”1109″ img_size=”full” alignment=”center”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]The larvae emerge from their mines at the conclusion of the first instar, molt beneath the leaf, and thereafter feed on the lower surface of the leaf. Caterpillars eat many small holes in the leaves of the host plants, often leaving the leaf epidermis (outermost layer of cells) intact, making a ‘feeding window’. Most damage is caused by the caterpillars tunneling into the heads of plants such as cabbage

Use Escort 10ml/20L+ Integra 3ml/20L

[/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/2″][dt_fancy_title title=”Aphids” title_align=”left” title_size=”small” title_color=”accent” el_width=”50″ separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_single_image image=”1112″ img_size=”full” alignment=”center”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]Aphids feed by sucking sap from their host plants.  Continued feeding by aphids causes yellowing, wilting and stunting of plants. Severely infested plants become covered with a mass of small sticky aphids (due to honeydew secretions), which can eventually lead to leaf death and decay.

Use King Code Elite 10ml/20L + Integra 3ml/20L

[/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/2″][dt_fancy_title title=”Leaf Sawfly” title_align=”left” title_size=”small” title_color=”accent” el_width=”50″ separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_single_image image=”1110″ img_size=”full” alignment=”center”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]Sawflies are sporadic but serious pests of brassicas. They are black/green caterpillars with a black head. They often eat cabbage leaves leaving the midrib.

Use Escort 10ml/20L + Integra 3ml/20L

[/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/2″][dt_fancy_title title=”Cutworms ” title_align=”left” title_size=”small” title_color=”accent” el_width=”50″ separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_single_image image=”1111″ img_size=”full” alignment=”center”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]Cutworms are recognized by their smooth skin, greasy gray color and “C-shaped”; posture when disturbed. Eggs are laid by the night flying moths on grasses, weeds, and other host plants.  Cutworms feed at night causing serious damage to stems and foliage of young plants, during the day they retreat to their underground burrows.

Use Pentagon 10ml/20L

[/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][dt_fancy_title title=”DISEASE MANAGEMENT” title_align=”left” title_size=”h6″ title_color=”accent” separator_style=”thick” separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/2″][dt_fancy_title title=”Black Rots” title_align=”left” title_size=”small” title_color=”accent” el_width=”50″ separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_single_image image=”1113″ img_size=”full” alignment=”center”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]The disease is easily recognized by the presence of large yellow to yellow-orange “V”-shaped areas extending inward from the margin of a leaf, and by black veins in the infected area.

 Use Green Cop 50g/20L+ Integra 3ml/20L

[dt_fancy_title title=”Downey Mildew” title_align=”left” title_size=”small” title_color=”accent” el_width=”50″ separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_single_image image=”1114″ img_size=”full” alignment=”center”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]Caused by Hyaloperonospora parasitica previously known as Peronospora parasitica

Downy mildew is first seen as a fluffy or powdery-white mass of spores on the undersurface of brassica leaves. This is followed by a black speckling and puckering of the upper surface. Leaves prematurely turns yellow and fall from the plants.

Symptoms on mature plants in the field are generally confined to the leaves closest to the ground. The fungus produces spores on the undersurface, and brown to black, sunken, angular, pepper-like lesions on the upper surface of leaves.

Use Pyramid 50g/20L+ Integra 3ml/20L

[dt_fancy_title title=”Alternaria Leaf Spot” title_align=”left” title_size=”small” title_color=”accent” el_width=”50″ separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_single_image image=”1117″ img_size=”full” alignment=”center”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]Alternaria Leaf Spot is a common disease of cabbage caused by the fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola

The most common symptom of Alternaria diseases is yellow, dark brown to black circular leaf spots with target like, concentric rings. Lesion centers may fall out, giving the leaf spots a shot-hole appearance. Individual spots coalesce into large necrotic areas and leaf drop can occur.

Use Chariot 500SC 20ml/20L+ Integra 3ml/20L

[/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/2″][dt_fancy_title title=”Damping off ” title_align=”left” title_size=”small” title_color=”accent” el_width=”50″ separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_single_image image=”1115″ img_size=”full” alignment=”center”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]Seeds may be infected as soon as moisture penetrates the seed coat or a bit later as the radicle begins to extend, all of which rot immediately under the soil surface (pre-emergence damping-off). This condition results in a poor, uneven stand of seedlings, often confused with low seed viability. Cotyledons may break the soil surface only to wither and die or healthy looking seedlings may suddenly fall over (post-emergence damping-off).  Infection results in lesions at or below the soil line. The seedling will discolor or wilt suddenly, or simply collapse and die. This is a seedling disease caused by Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Fusarium

Use Pyramid 50g/20L+ Integra 3ml/20L

[dt_fancy_title title=”Head Rot ” title_align=”left” title_size=”small” title_color=”accent” el_width=”50″ separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_single_image image=”1116″ img_size=”full” alignment=”center”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

Symptoms often first appear as water soaked spots on lower or upper cabbage leaves. As water soaked spots enlarge, infected tissue becomes soft, and some outer leaves begin to wilt. A white cottony growth becomes evident on the leaves as the disease progresses. Eventually the entire cabbage head is covered with this white cottony growth and the overwintering sclerotia begin to form. Initially sclerotia are white and round and later become black, hard and irregular in shape. The black sclerotia become visible on the outside of the cabbage head, but they also form inside the head.

Use Green cop 50g/20L+ Integra 3ml/20L

[/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][dt_fancy_title title=”CROP NUTRITION” title_size=”h5″ title_color=”accent” separator_style=”thick” separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]The amount of fertilizers to be applied will depend on the soil analysis report and soil type. During early stages a lot of Phosphorus is needed to help in root establishment which will be supplied by foliar feeding Goldchance super start 14:28:18 50g/20L or Lavender 24:24:18 20ML/20L

During vegetative stage a lot of Nitrogen is needed and this is achieved through foliar feeding Lavender 20ml/20l or Goldchance super growth 50g/20L

During head formation potassium is needed to ensure proper head formation and this achieved by Lavender 20ml/20L[dt_fancy_title title=”WEED MANAGEMENT” title_size=”h5″ title_color=”accent” separator_style=”thick” separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]Optimal production of these Brassica leafy vegetables depends on successful weed control. Weeds reduce yields by direct competition for nutrients, water, and light.

Weed control is especially important early in the season when weed competition can substantially reduce vigor, uniformity, and overall yield. These weeds in and around the field can harbor insects and disease pathogens that can invade or spread to the crop soon after planting.

At Greenlife, we recommend Commander 50ml/20ml a pre-emergence herbicide 2-3 days before transplanting to control weeds[dt_fancy_title title=”HARVESTING” title_size=”h5″ title_color=”accent” separator_style=”thick” separator_color=”custom” custom_separator_color=”#dddddd”][vc_column_text css_animation=”fadeInUp”]Cabbage can be harvested any time after the heads form. For highest yield, cut the cabbage heads when they are solid (firm to hand pressure) but before they crack or split. When heads are mature, a sudden heavy rain may cause heads to crack or split wide open. The exposed internal tissue soon becomes unusable.

The time frame for harvesting kale is a personal decision, loosely based on flavor preferences. For those that require a lighter side to kale’s taste, younger leaves will suffice. But for those that like the more pungent and bold flavor of kale, the matured leaves of fall are preferable.

Last updated on Wednesday, March 15, 2023 at 1:07 pm

Recommended for you

Cottony Soft Rot of Carrot

The cottony rot disease is caused by the fungal pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and is becoming a serious economic disease in carrots. The key characteristic of

Read On »

Early Blight

Early blight is a fungal disease caused by a fungus Alternaria solani, which mostly affects tomato and potato plants, causing significant losses if not effectively

Read On »

Courgettes Nutrition

Courgettes are relatively heavy users of nutrients and thus need sufficient nutrients supply for optimal productivity. A proper nutrition is achieved by supplying the crop

Read On »

What are Aquaponics?

Aquaponics is a soil-free, sustainable food production method which combines aquaculture (growing fish) and hydroponics (growing plants in water using chemical nutrients).

Read On »

Tea farming

Tea (Camellia sinendis) is a highland growing cash Crop which can be categorized in groups according to their colour i.e. black tea, yellow tea, white

Read On »

French Beans

French beans are a member of the Fabaceae family alongside the common bean. They are specifically bred and cultivated for their pods versus their seeds.

Read On »